Obesity is one of the defining health challenges of our generation. Studies project that, if current trends continue, more than 50% of the US population will have obesity within the next 20 years.
Characteristics of Children 2 to 5 Years of Age with Severe Obesity
June M. Tester, MD, MPH, Thao-Ly T. Phan, MD, MPH, Jared M. Tucker, PhD, Cindy W. Leung, ScD, MPH, Meredith L. Dreyer Gillette, PhD, Brooke R. Sweeney, MD, Shelley Kirk, PhD, RD, LD, Alexis Tindall, RD, LD, Susan E. Olivo-Marston, PhD, MPH, Ihuoma U. Eneli, MD, MS, 2018. "Characteristics of Children 2 to 5 Years of Age with Severe Obesity", Obesity: Stigma, Trends, and Interventions, American Academy of Pediatrics
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As a distinct group, 2- to 5-year-olds with severe obesity (SO) have not been extensively described. As a part of the Expert Exchange Workgroup on Childhood Obesity, nationally-representative data were examined to better characterize children with SO.
Children ages 2 to 5 (N = 7028) from NHANES (1999–2014) were classified as having normal weight, overweight, obesity, or SO (BMI ≥120% of 95th percentile). Sociodemographics, birth characteristics, screen time, total energy, and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores were evaluated. Multinomial logistic and linear regressions were conducted, with normal weight as the referent.
The prevalence of SO was 2.1%. Children with SO had higher (unadjusted) odds of being a racial and/or ethnic minority (African American: odds ratio [OR]: 1.7; Hispanic: OR: 2.3). They were from households with lower educational attainment (OR: 2.4), that were single-parent headed (OR: 2.0), and that were in poverty (OR: 2.1). Having never been breastfed was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.5) and higher odds of SO (OR: 1.9). Odds of >4 hours of screen time were 1.5 and 2.0 for children with obesity and SO. Energy intake and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores were not significantly different in children with SO.
Children ages 2 to 5 with SO appear to be more likely to be of a racial and/or ethnic minority and have greater disparities in social determinants of health than their peers and are more than twice as likely to engage in double the recommended screen time limit.