Interactive peer-led drug prevention programs for middle-schoolers are more successful in their effect on cigarette smoking, excessive drinking and cannabis use than lecture programs led by teachers/researchers, according to a 120-study meta-analysis of school-based programs in North America.

In an interactive, peer-led program, students participate face-to-face in role plays, model and rehearse inter-personal skills and offer peer feedback. In a noninteractive program, teachers introduce content to students in a didactic manner.

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