A new AAP clinical report released Nov. 18 outlines three principles of judicious antibiotic prescribing for pediatric upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). The document also identifies situations in which antibiotic overuse is significant (common cold and bronchitis) and highlights risks associated with antibiotic use, including the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance and increasing rates of Clostridium difficile diarrhea.

The clinical report, Principles of Judicious Antibiotic Prescribing for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Pediatrics from the AAP Committee on Infectious Diseases, is available at www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2013-3260 and is published in the December issue of Pediatrics (2013;132:1146-1154).

For the three most common bacterial URIs — acute otitis media, acute bacterial sinusitis and group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis — the principles focus on:

The clinical report highlights the diagnostic and treatment recommendations from the AAP clinical practice guideline for acute otitis media (

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