Case 1: In 1975, C.T., a 15-year-old, caught a "swing pass," and as he was about to be tackled, lowered his head and smashed into the tackler. Both went down, but only the tackler got up. C.T. lay paralyzed, having become quadriplegic instantaneously as a consequence of trauma to his cervical cord. Besides the physical and psychological aftermath for C.T., his single-parent mother faced enormous financial burdens.

Three years later — the day before the expiration of the then statute of limitations — suit was filed against two school districts, the Interscholastic Athletic Association and the helmet manufacturer. Another four years passed before the case was tried, with sizable costs being incurred by both sides.

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