There are many health threats to our children today. Accidents, injuries, and acute medical illnesses remain major causes of morbidity and mortality after infancy. Each year, more than 10,000 children younger than 15 years are lost to accidents and injuries alone. For every child who dies, four others are also seriously maimed. The combination of motor vehicle (including bicycle) accidents, drownings and poisonings account for the vast majority of these events. The solution to this tragedy is a functioning Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system — one that includes the lay public as active participants. The Emergency Medical Services system was defined by federal legislation during the 1970s to consist of multiple components. The system itself is probably best understood, however, in phases represented by figure #1.