Continuing technologic and medical advances in the detection, treatment, and prevention of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require an ongoing assessment and review of recommendations relating to pediatric HIV infection, including issues that involve prenatal and perinatal HIV counseling and testing.

Human immunodeficiency virus infection continues to spread among women of childbearing age in the United States, and is occurring in rural as well as urban areas. With the increasing heterosexual spread of HIV, previously-defined risk behaviors for HIV infection incompletely identify women found to be infected.

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