The AAP Red Book is published every three years, but the pediatric infectious disease landscape is changing continuously. The AAP has approved a process to update chapters between publication years to help pediatric health care professionals provide the best possible care for children.
Updates are posted on Red Book Online (https://publications.aap.org/redbook) when new recommendations are published by the Academy as policy statements or by other national or international organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO).
Since publication of the 2021 Red Book, four chapters have been updated:
- Dengue. The CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended Dengvaxia vaccine for children ages 9 through 16 years who have evidence of a previous dengue infection and live where dengue is endemic.
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. The NIH updated its HIV perinatal guidelines to add neviripine dosing for infants 32-34 weeks’ gestational age.
- Rabies. ACIP liberalized preexposure prophylaxis recommendations from three doses to a two-dose schedule at 0 and 7 days. People who interact with animals that could be rabid and selected travelers can have either a one-time antibody titer check during years 1 to 3 after completion of the two-dose primary vaccine series (with a booster dose given if the antibody titer is <0.5 IU/mL) or a one-time preemptive booster dose administered no sooner than day 21 and no later than three years after completion of the two-dose primary vaccine series.
- Tuberculosis. The WHO updated guidance on the management of tuberculosis in children and adolescents with nonsevere tuberculosis disease to provide a four-month treatment option. It consists of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol daily for the first two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin daily for two months.
Dr. Kimberlin is editor of the AAP Red Book.