A 5-year-old girl is seen in her pediatrician’s office for complaint of constipation. The child was last seen 2 months ago for the same complaint. Her history includes surgical repair of a cloacal anomaly when she was an infant. The child has developed issues of constipation since starting school a few weeks earlier. The pediatrician examines the child and decides to consult the child’s pediatric surgeon, who practices at a children’s hospital 2 hours away. The pediatrician phones the surgeon with the mother and child present and documents a total of 20 minutes spent in discussion of management options. Following the phone call, the pediatrician reviews the care plan with the patient and her mother, including keeping an already-scheduled appointment with the surgeon in 4 weeks. The pediatrician’s total face-to-face time with the patient and her mother is 35 minutes. Assessment includes constipation without impaction and history of repair of...

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