Children with spina bifida are at high risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). However, there is no standardized definition of UTI in this population, leading to variability in both clinical management and research. This was highlighted in the 2013 systematic review on the same topic.


Evaluate the frequency with which researchers are defining UTI in their studies of children with spina bifida and to determine what parameters are used.


We searched Medline and Scopus databases for articles that included pediatric patients with spina bifida and used UTI as an outcome.


Exclusion criteria included publication before October 1, 2012, non-English language, and nonprimary research articles.


Two independent reviewers each extracted data.


A total of 39 studies were included; 74% of these analyzed included an explicit definition of UTI. The most commonly used definition included a combination of symptoms and culture results (34.5%), whereas 31% used a combination of symptoms, culture results, and urinalysis data. Only 3.4% of articles used a urine culture alone to define UTI.


More articles that focus on children with spina bifida included a definition of UTI. However, significant variability persists in the definition of UTI in this patient population.

You do not currently have access to this content.