To identify associations between weight category and hospital admission for lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD), defined as asthma, community-acquired pneumonia, viral pneumonia, or bronchiolitis, among children evaluated in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs).
We performed a retrospective cohort study of children 2 to <18 years of age evaluated in the PED at 6 children’s hospitals within the PEDSnet clinical research network from 2009 to 2019. BMI percentile of children was classified as underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and class 1, 2, or 3 obesity. Children with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between BMI categories and hospitalization or 7- and 30-day PED revisits, adjusted for covariates (age, sex, race and ethnicity, and payer).
Among 107 446 children with 218 180 PED evaluations for LRTD, 4.5% had underweight, 56.4% had healthy normal weight, 16.1% had overweight, 14.6% had class 1 obesity, 5.5% had class 2 obesity, and 3.0% had class 3 obesity. Underweight was associated with increased risk of hospital admission compared with normal weight (odds ratio [OR] 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69–1.84). Overweight (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.85–0.90), class 1 obesity (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.85–0.91), and class 2 obesity (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.87–0.96) had negative associations with hospital admission. Class 1 and class 2, but not class 3, obesity had small positive associations with 7- and 30-day PED revisits.
We found an inverse relationship between patient weight category and risk for hospital admission in children evaluated in the PED for LRTD.