BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Researchers in previous studies suggest that the clinical yield of follow-up blood cultures (FUBCs) is low in infants with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI) because persistent bacteremia is rare; however, no researchers have analyzed the practice of routinely obtaining FUBCs. In our study, we evaluate outcomes in infants with FUBCs, examine opportunities for improvement of blood culture practices, and add important information to inform both clinical practice as well as further study.

DESIGN

This retrospective cohort study included infants <90 days of age with bacteremia and UTI with the same pathogen at 22 hospitals that make up Intermountain Healthcare between 2002 to 2020. Infants with culture proven meningitis, osteomyelitis, central line infection, and infections occurring during NICU hospitalization were excluded.

RESULTS

Total number of patients with bacteremic UTI was 174, 153 (88%) patients had at least 1 FUBC, 14 of 153 (9%) had a positive FUBC with same organism, and 4 of 153 (3%) were contaminants. The length of stay was longer for patients with positive FUBCs. Patients with Escherichia coli are more likely to have a negative FUBC. Readmissions within 30 days were similar among infants with positive FUBCs, negative FUBCs, and no FUBCs.

CONCLUSIONS

FUBCs in infants with bacteremic UTI should not be routinely performed, especially for E coli, and it is unclear whether FUBCs improve outcomes.

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