Whereas appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) has been shown to reduce the rates of surgical site infection (SSI) in adults, the concept of appropriate AP in the context of pediatric procedures is less well defined. Indeed, there is very few high-quality data to guide the multiple dimensions of perioperative AP use in children, including antibiotic choice, antibiotic dose, timing of antibiotic administration and redosing, and antibiotic duration. As a result, there is considerable variability in the use of AP among children undergoing surgical procedures.2,3  More recently, multiple clinical practice guidelines for the use of perioperative AP have been published,4–7  some of which include pediatric-specific recommendations on the basis of available evidence, expert opinion, and an extrapolation of data in adult patients. Several studies have documented noncompliance with these recommendations, including the use of perioperative AP when it is not indicated (eg, clean surgical...

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