To identify associations between weight status and clinical outcomes in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) or asthma requiring hospitalization.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2 to 17 year old children hospitalized for LRTI and/or asthma from 2009 to 2019 using electronic health record data from the PEDSnet clinical research network. Children <2 years, those with medical complexity, and those without a calculable BMI were excluded. Children were classified as having underweight, normal weight, overweight, or class 1, 2, or 3 obesity based on Body Mass Index percentile for age and sex. Primary outcomes were need for positive pressure respiratory support and ICU admission. Subgroup analyses were performed for children with a primary diagnosis of asthma. Outcomes were modeled with mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression incorporating age, sex, and payer as fixed effects.
We identified 65 132 hospitalizations; 6.7% with underweight, 57.8% normal weight, 14.6% overweight, 13.2% class 1 obesity, 5.0% class 2 obesity, and 2.8% class 3 obesity. Overweight and obesity were associated with positive pressure respiratory support (class 3 obesity versus normal weight odds ratio [OR] 1.62 [1.38–1.89]) and ICU admission (class 3 obesity versus normal weight OR 1.26 [1.12–1.42]), with significant associations for all categories of overweight and obesity. Underweight was also associated with positive pressure respiratory support (OR 1.39 [1.24–1.56]) and ICU admission (1.40 [1.30–1.52]).
Both underweight and overweight or obesity are associated with increased severity of LRTI or asthma in hospitalized children.