Pediatric hospitalists frequently treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). CAP has an incidence of 33 per 100 000 children <5 years of age and 14.5 per 100 000 children <16 years of age in the developed world, and about one-half of these patients are admitted for inpatient care. Although the etiology of CAP varies by age, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of bacterial CAP.

Recent guidelines released by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America suggest treating CAP with ampicillin or penicillin G for the fully immunized infant or school-aged child or using a third-generation parenteral cephalosporin (ceftriaxone or cefotaxime) for hospitalized infants and children who are not fully immunized, in regions where local epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal strains document high-level penicillin resistance, or for infants and children with a life-threatening infection.

In our ongoing efforts to be more judicious with...

You do not currently have access to this content.