BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

No standardized risk assessment tool exists for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. This study aims to investigate the association between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and pediatric CAP.

METHODS:

Data prospectively collected by the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community study (2010–2012) was used. Study population was pediatric patients admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Nashville and Memphis, Tennessee with clinically and radiographically confirmed CAP. The earliest measured RDW value on admission was used, in quintiles and also as a continuous variable. Outcomes analyzed were: severe CAP (requiring ICU, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support, or death) or moderate CAP (hospital admission only). Analysis used multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic splines modeling.

RESULTS:

In 1459 eligible children, the median age was 29 months (interquartile range: 12–73), median RDW was 13.3% (interquartile range: 12.5–14.3), and 289 patients (19.8%) developed severe disease. In comparison with the lowest RDW quintile (Q1), the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for severe CAP in subsequent quintiles were, Q2: 1.20 (0.72–1.99); Q3: 1.28 (0.76–2.14); Q4: 1.69 (1.01–2.82); Q5: 1.25 (0.73–2.13). Consistently, RDW restricted cubic splines demonstrated an independent, nonlinear, positive association with CAP severity (P = .027), with rapid increases in the risk of severe CAP with RDW values up to 15%.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher presenting RDW was associated with an increased risk of severe CAP in hospitalized children. Widely available and inexpensive, RDW can serve as an objective data point to help with clinical assessments.

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