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Hospital Pediatrics Author Instructions

Hospital Pediatrics is an official peer-reviewed journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Hospital Pediatrics publishes original research articles, reviews (with a preference for systematic reviews), quality improvement reports, solicited commentaries, and perspectives pieces on topics relevant to the care of hospitalized children. These articles appear in 12 print and online issues per year. Hospital Pediatrics is the first and only journal for the field of Pediatric Hospital Medicine. The journal’s mission is dedicated to the health of all children in the hospital setting. The 2022 CiteScore for Hospital Pediatrics is 3.5.

Helpful Tips

For general guidance on article writing, survey design, basic statistics, and medical education scholarship, see the Resources section below.

Please Note: The journal does not publish case reports.

Editors' note on COVID-19–related submissions: Because we are receiving numerous submissions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, at this time we are prioritizing multicenter and/or prospective investigations. If you do wish to submit a retrospective single-center paper around COVID-19 or other pandemic-related questions, please be clear in your cover letter: 1) what gap this research is filling that has not been filled by previously published research? and 2) how filling this gap will help to improve care for hospitalized children?

 

Acceptance Criteria

Relevance to readers is of major importance in manuscript selection. A report of original research will be judged on the importance and originality of the research, its scientific strength, its clinical relevance, and the clarity with which it is presented. The decision to publish is not based on the direction of results. An article that is thought by the editors to not be relevant to readers, outside of scope, or very unlikely to be accepted may be rejected without review.

 

Peer Review

Hospital Pediatrics follows a double-blind peer review policy in which reviewers and authors are unaware of each other's identities and affiliations. All manuscripts considered for publication are peer reviewed, including those written by members of the Editorial Board. Peer reviewers are selected by the editors. Selection is based on their expertise in the topic of the manuscript. Generally, at least 2 reviewers are required before a decision is rendered. A reviewer may elect to sign their review.

After reviews are received, editors may make one of the following decisions: Accept; Accept With Minor Revisions; Major Revisions; Reject With Option to Resubmit; or Reject. A decision of Accept, which is exceedingly rare on first submission, indicates that the manuscript is ready to place into production without further modification. A decision of Accept With Minor Revisions indicates that the editors intend to accept the manuscript contingent on adequate response to reviewers. A decision of Major Revisions indicates that the manuscript has merit but would require substantial changes before being considered for publication. A decision of Reject With Option to Resubmit indicates that extensive revision would be needed to resubmit. Resubmitted manuscripts receive an additional round of peer review (which may include new reviewers), and the manuscript may or may not be accepted. A manuscript with a decision of Reject may not be resubmitted. Appeals on decisions will be considered by the Editorial Board on a case-by-case basis.

 

Publication Ethics

Authorship. An “author” is someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. Each author is required to meet ALL FOUR of the following criteria:

  1. Substantial contribution(s) to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and
  2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
  3. Final approval of the version to be published, and
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

NOTE: Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute a sufficient basis for authorship.

All persons listed as authors must meet these criteria, and all persons who meet these criteria must be listed as authors. Although Hospital Pediatrics does not specifically limit the number of authors, articles submitted with an unusual number of authors invite scrutiny by editors and reviewers for clear justification for the presence of each person on the authorship list. Hospital Pediatrics permits a statement of equal contribution for two first authors only. On the title page, include asterisks by each name and a statement that reads: * Contributed equally as co-first authors.

Decide authorship issues, including the order, before submission. Except in instances where the editorial office has determined that a person does not qualify for authorship, Hospital Pediatrics does not allow changes to the author order, including adding or removing authors from a paper or any subsequent revisions.

IRB Approval. All studies that involve human subjects must be approved or deemed exempt by an official institutional review board; this should be noted in the Methods section of the manuscript.

Industry Sponsorship. Hospital Pediatrics generally does not accept reports of studies in which all authors are employed by a commercial entity with a financial interest in the results of the study.

Registration of Clinical Trials. All clinical trials must be registered in a World Health Organization-approved clinical trial registry prior to enrollment of the first subject. The registry name and registration number should be included on the Title Page. Reports of unregistered trials will be returned to authors without review. Publication of the results of a trial that was initiated prior to the ICMJE requirement for trial registration will be considered by the editors on a case-by-case basis.

Suspected Errors and Allegations of Misconduct. Hospital Pediatrics follows the processes outlined in the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flowcharts when investigating suspected errors and allegations of misconduct. Please be aware that all investigations are confidential. If an error has been found or misconduct has been identified, the journal will publicly acknowledge the outcome through an erratum or retraction, depending on the severity of the issue. Investigations that result in no error or misconduct being found will not be publicized.

 

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) tools do not qualify for authorship. To qualify, authors must meet all four of the following criteria1:

  1. Substantial contribution(s) to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and
  2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
  3. Final approval of the version to be published, and
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

AI tools cannot take responsibility for the accuracy or integrity of a manuscript and, therefore, do not qualify for authorship.2

While the use of AI tools is discouraged, if generative AI tools are used in any part of manuscript preparation, from writing to data analysis to image creation, the authors must report it in the Methods and Acknowledgments sections3 and note use of an AI tool in the cover letter. Identification of AI must include the name and manufacturer of the AI tool and how it was used in relation to the work being submitted.2 Authors are accountable for the integrity and accuracy of all material in their manuscript, including any content generated by AI.3

References

  1. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors. Available at: https://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html. Accessed April 7, 2023
  2. World Association of Medical Editors. Chatbots, ChatGPT, and Scholarly Manuscripts. Available at: https://wame.org/page3.php?id=106. Accessed April 7, 2023
  3. Council on Publication Ethics. Authorship and AI Tools. Available at: https://publicationethics.org/cope-position-statements/ai-author. Accessed April 7, 2023

 

Consideration of Race and Ethnicity

Race and ethnicity should be acknowledged as a social construct rather than as genetic or biological categories. The rationale for including race and/or ethnicity in a manuscript should always be provided. Race and ethnicity should be acknowledged as social constructs rather than as genetic or biological categories. In research articles, justification for including race and/or ethnicity should be described in  the Methods section. Please also note if reporting race or ethnicity is required by the funder. The Methods section should also include a clear explanation of how race and/or ethnicity were assigned (eg, self-report, observation by an investigator or other third party, electronic health record with uncertain method). Use of "Other" as a category for race and/or ethnicity should be clearly defined. It is inappropriate to assign missing race and/or ethnicity to an "Other" category. The use of racial and/or ethnic categories in statistical analyses should be justified in the Methods section, and the rationale for the comparator group should also be justified. Results related to race and/or ethnicity should be interpreted in the context of racism (eg, interpersonal, institutional, or internalized) and histories of exclusion, mistreatment, and exploitation, rather than as behaviors or presumed deficits. Please see the AMA Manual of Style Section 11.12.3: Race and Ethnicity for additional considerations.

 

Inclusive Language

  • Person-first language, which emphasizes the individual or group rather than the condition, disease, or situation, should generally be used, eg, “child(ren) with diabetes” and “child(ren) with obesity” rather than “diabetic child(ren)” and “obese child(ren).” Exceptions to first-person language include certain identity-first language for individuals and groups who prefer it, eg, “Deaf child(ren)” or “autistic child(ren).”
  • Race and ethnicity categories should be capitalized, including the White race. Race and ethnicity should be used as adjectives rather than nouns, eg, “Hispanic individuals” rather than “Hispanics.”  Race and ethnicity should be treated as separate categories rather than merging them, eg, “race and ethnicity” rather than “race/ethnicity.” 
  • Articles that report race and/or ethnicity should use the specific terms used in data collection or in the original study referenced. The terms should be accurate, understandable to study participants, and consistent with participants’ self-understanding. 
  • Refer to gender identity using terms such as “cisgender or transgender,” “man or woman,” “gender-nonbinary,” “genderqueer,” or “agender person,” etc., rather than “transgendered,” “transsexual,” or “transvestite.” Refer to the community as “transgender and non-binary” or “gender diverse,” rather than “gender non-conforming.”
  • Refer to sexual orientation using specific terms such as “heterosexual,” “lesbian,” “gay,” “bisexual,” “queer,” rather than terms such as “homosexual” or “non-heterosexual.” Refer to the “LGBTQ+ community” rather than the “gay community” unless referencing specific subgroups.  Restrict the use of “men who have sex with men” to refer to behaviors rather than to sexual orientation. 
  • Both pregnant women” and “pregnant people” are acceptable terms. Avoid substituting “pregnant women” with phrases such as “birthing people” or “people with uteruses.” Neutral terms, such as “pregnant patients” and “pregnant people” are inclusive alternatives. Authors of research studies should use the specific terms used in data collection or in the original study referenced. 

 

Double-Blind Peer Review Manuscript Formatting

You must prepare your manuscript according to the following guidelines.

  1. Upload a SEPARATE document (Word format only) containing your complete Title Page and Contributors’ Statement Page. Include ALL required Title Page and Contributors’ Statement Page information or your submission will be returned to you for correction.
  2. When uploading your manuscript, upload the Title Page/Contributors’ Statement Page first by clicking the “Upload your title page” link.
  3. Please make sure none of your other files have any identifying information in them, including the name of your institution. If you wish to include acknowledgments, include an Acknowledgments section on the title page (see Title Page). Be sure to remove institution logos if they appear on tables and figures.
  4. In your manuscript file, remove references to the specific institution at which the study was performed and replace those mentions with generic descriptors of the setting as appropriate (eg, our 400-bed freestanding children’s hospital in the southeastern US).

 

Journal Style

All aspects of the manuscript (tables, illustrations, and references) should be prepared according to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements.

Grammar, Punctuation, and Usage. Grammar, punctuation, and scientific writing style should follow the most current edition of the AMA Manual of Style.1

Author Listing. All authors' names should be listed in their entirety. All authors must clearly present institutional/professional affiliations and degrees held.

Units of Measure. Authors should use Système International (SI)2,3 values.

Abbreviations. To ensure clarity, authors should provide a list of acronyms and abbreviations on the title page.

Proprietary Products. Authors should use nonproprietary names of drugs or devices. The journal will not print trade names or manufacturer names, without very clear justification and full board review of the issue.

References. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. Citations should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text. Review articles should be appropriately cited. Reference style should follow that of the AMA Manual of Style, current edition. Abbreviated journal names should reflect the style of Index Medicus. Visit: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive/20130415/tsd/serials/lji.html.

 

Manuscript Preparation for Initial Submission

  • Remove all author-identifying information in the manuscript and tables/figures. This includes all mentions of author institutions and institutional review boards, as well as any institution branding on tables/figures. Use generic language within the manuscript (eg, "the university's institutional review board," "our 400-bed freestanding children’s hospital in the southeastern US").
  • Submit your manuscript as a Word document and include line and page numbering. This will expedite peer review.
  • Include abstracts in the manuscript file, if applicable to your article type.
  • Adhere to abstract and article type word count limits. For word count limits, see specific article type guidance below. 
  • Adhere to table/figure limits (5 maximum for most articles; 3 maximum for Brief Reports). Tables/figures exceeding the limit should be labeled as supplemental (eg, Supplemental Table 2) and will appear online only as supplemental data. Adapted or reprinted figures cannot be used without permission of the copyright holder. Upload your tables/figures as a separate file or files.

 

Cover Letter

The cover letter serves to assure the editors that the article and the authors meet the conditions of publication. This can include a brief paragraph that provides any additional information that may be useful to the editors. Reviewers will not see the cover letter; cover letters are not a Title Page.

If a manuscript uses the same or similar data contained in previously published articles, the authors must state this in the cover letter (and provide citations to the related or possibly duplicative materials). If the article has been posted to a preprint server, this must be mentioned in the cover letter.

 

Title Page

Title pages must be uploaded as a separate document and must include the following:

  1. Title (97 characters maximum)
  2. Full names for all authors, including degrees, and institutional/professional affiliations.
  3. Contact information for the Corresponding Author (including: name, address, telephone, and e-mail).
  4. Conflict of Interest Disclosures for all authors. This includes any potential conflicts of interest, any relevant financial relationships, and any other relationships or activities that could be perceived to have influenced the work. If none, say "The authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article to disclose.”
  5. Funding/Support. Research or project support, including internal funding, should be listed here; if the project was done with no specific support, please note that here. Technical and other assistance should be identified in Acknowledgments. If your funding body has open access requirements, please contact the Editorial Office prior to submission. Hospital Pediatrics has a 12-month embargo on articles (followed by a 4-year open access period) and does not allow articles to be opened for Creative Commons or similar licenses.
  6. Role of Funder/Sponsor. This details how funders/sponsors participated in the work (eg, study design or conduct; data collection, management, or interpretation; manuscript review or preparation). If the funder/sponsor played no role, say "The funder/sponsor did not participate in the work."
  7. Contributor statements. All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. This section should list the authors in order, and for each, specify the contribution(s) made by that individual. Follow the required format shown in the sample PDF.
  8. Data sharing statement. Include if reporting results of a clinical trial.
  9. Acknowledgments. All statements of acknowledgment with identifiable names or institutions should be placed under the Contributor Statement.

If a title page does not include all of the above items, the submission may be returned to the authors for completion.

Download and view a sample Title Page (PDF) here.

Note: To help us better promote articles on social media, we request that authors include their Twitter handles in their title page if they have an account they use professionally.

 

Research Articles (submitted as article type “Original Article”)

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer
Article length: 3,000 words or fewer
Figures/tables: 5 or fewer

NOTE: Abstracts and References are not included in the word count.
 

Regular articles are original research contributions relevant to the clinical practice of inpatient pediatrics. Regular articles include but are not limited to clinical trials, interventional studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, and surveys. Components of a regular article should follow the IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) format.

ABSTRACTS: A structured abstract is required and should include headings such as Objective, Patients and Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The objective should clearly state the hypothesis; patients and methods, the inclusion criteria and study design; results, the outcome of the study; and conclusions, the outcome in relation to the hypothesis. The abstract should be included in the manuscript file.

Qualitative Research and Mixed Methods Research Articles may have a word count of up to 3,500 words. This higher word limit should allow authors to describe qualitative findings and include representative quotations in the results text. The other limits on abstract length and figures/tables also apply to these Research Articles.

 

Quality Improvement Reports (submitted as article type “Original Article”)

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer
Article length: 3,000 words or fewer
Figures/tables: 5 or fewer

Quality reports pertaining to inpatient care will be considered. Authors are expected to generally follow the Standard for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 2.0) Guidelines for reporting their quality improvement projects. These guidelines are described in detail on the SQUIRE website. Authors should note that the basic structure of a quality report will mirror the rest of the journal, using the IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) format. A structured abstract is also required and should be included in the manuscript file.

For the vast majority of Quality Improvement Reports, the editorial team will expect to see time-ordered data that depicts the data across multiple time points. For reports detailing multiple interventions and/or Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, run charts and/or control charts should be used to depict and statistically analyze the measures of the improvement project. The authors should describe how signal of change or special cause variation was identified. For reports investigating the impact of a discrete intervention, an interrupted time series analysis can be used with an appropriate description of the analysis included in the methods section.

The following is a brief description of the sections of a quality report with more detail to be found in the SQUIRE guidelines:

Introduction: Why did you start? Summarizes background, local problem/setting, and specific aim(s) of project.

Methods: What did you do? Describes contextual issues, the intervention itself, implementation and evaluation/measurement plan.

Results: What did you find? Describes the actual course of the intervention, changes in process and outcomes, degree of success, problems and failures and lessons learned.

Discussion: What do the findings mean? Summarizes findings and interpretation of findings, conclusions and next steps.

 

 

Brief Reports

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer
Article length: 1,500 words
Figures/tables: 3 or fewer

This section is intended to provide a venue for the systematic presentation of preliminary findings of a research or quality improvement study or non-traditional topics in a medical journal. Potential topics include the scholarly examination of issues in practice management, ethics, interpersonal communication, negotiation, etc. Brief reports should follow the same structure as other original research or quality reports whenever possible (including a structured abstract, which should be included in the manuscript file), but may be tailored depending on the topic being addressed.

Authors are limited to 3 figures/tables in the print edition; however, additional figures/tables may be submitted as supplemental files, which would appear with the online version of the article.

 

 

Research Briefs

Abstract length: No abstract
Article length: 700 words or fewer
References: 10 or fewer

Research Briefs summarize original research describing preliminary findings or descriptive studies that although meaningful are better suited to a shorter, focused report than other article types that appear in the journal. Although there is no restriction on the type of study design for Research Briefs, clinical trials are in most cases better suited for submission as an Original Article.

Authors should follow the following format:

Introduction
A brief paragraph summarizing the context of the report and any hypotheses.

Methods
A concise description of the study design and approach. All studies that involve human subjects must be approved or deemed exempt by an official institution review board; this should be noted here.

Results
A concise description of the findings. A combined total of 2 tables or figures can be used.

Discussion
A concise summary of how the findings influence the understanding of the topic. The limitations should be clearly described. Special attention should be on the implications and next steps that are needed beyond a statement that more research is needed.

 

Review Articles

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer

Article length for systematic review: 4,000 words or fewer

Article length for narrative review: 3,000 words or fewer

Hospital Pediatrics accepts systematic and narrative reviews. Narrative reviews should summarize the existing literature on a topic of relevance to clinical practice in the hospital. To ensure the topic of a review is of interest to the journal and that a similar narrative review is not currently under review, please make a pre-submission inquiry to the Editor. Narrative reviews should include a broad review of the existing literature, a summary of the important findings, a description of gaps/unanswered questions, and conclusions.

The abstract of a narrative review is unstructured (no headings, run in a single paragraph) and should be included in the manuscript file.

Systematic reviews are the preferred review article format. A systematic review is a review of a clearly formulated question that uses explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods may or may not be used to analyze and summarize the results of the included studies (ie, meta-analysis). Authors are encouraged to generally follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Checklist and other details are available at www.prisma-statement.org. Structured abstracts for systematic reviews are required, and headings should include: Context, Objective, Data Sources, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Results, and Conclusions. Abstracts should be included in the manuscript file.

 

 

Special Articles

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph) 
Article length: 4,000 words or fewer
Figures/tables: 5 or fewer

Special Articles reflect topics or issues of relevance to pediatric hospitalists that do not conform to a traditional study format. Special Articles may address broad social and ethical issues, scientific methodology, or other scholarly topics, and may include reports from consensus committees and working groups. Special Articles may be submitted without an abstract (enter “N/A” in the abstract section of the online submission page), but the Medline entry will not have an abstract in that case.

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors’ statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) apply to Special Articles.

 

NEW: Health Equity Rounds

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph) 
Article length: 3,000 words or fewer
Figures/tables: 5 or fewer

We are excited to announce a new article type to analyze/dissect adverse outcomes in true hospital/hospital adjacent cases through a health equity lens. Articles should anchor a discussion of structural racism and implicit bias in a case of hospital care (or the antecedents to hospital care) of an infant, child, adolescent, or young adult. The article should begin with this case presentation and discuss specific biases/root causes that contribute to inequitable care and/or outcomes. This can and usually should include personal, systemic, and historical drivers. The discussion should include relevant literature and present evidence-based (ideally) or promising interventions to reduce the inequity(ies) discussed.

We would be particularly excited to receive submissions from trainees who have successfully shared stories through the Health Equity Rounds conferences, though this is not a requirement. We would ask that trainees work with faculty mentors to ensure that they are sharing these stories in a way that does not bring undue risk to them or their institutions. While cases presented at Health Equity Rounds are often focused on inequitable care, we also invite authors to present cases in which their institutions used evidence-based interventions or instituted policies that promoted equitable care and resulted in a positive outcome for the patient and family/caregiver. Presentations and health inequities explored need not be limited to cases in which racial and ethnic disparities exist -- we invite cases that explore all areas of inequities, including, but not limited to, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, insurance status, language, and ability status, as well as those with intersectionality.

Patient/guardian consent should be obtained when feasible. If this cannot be obtained, authors are required to ensure that details presented are sufficiently vague so that the case is not identifiable. We are happy to work with authors after submission to make sure this is the case.

 

NEW: Method/ology

Abstract length: 200 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph) 
Article length: 2,000 words or fewer
Figures/tables: 3 or fewer, 1 of which must be a summary of take-home points
Authors: 5 or fewer
References: 15 or fewer

Method/ology will include both invited and unsolicited articles. Potential authors interested in submitting and unsolicited Method/ology article should first submit a brief outline of their proposed topic to the section editors for approval before moving forward with the submission. This article type will review the important aspects of employing certain scholarly methods in research focused on hospitalized children. Method/ology articles cover methods utilized in the spectrum of scholarly work from early stage translational work to implementation research, qualitative research, improvement science, and medical education research. The overall goal of the article will be to equip the reader with sufficient knowledge to identify both the appropriate settings in which the method is used and the major components/pitfalls of its use, and to give an example of an existing publication that illustrates the method/approach/skill being discussed. While the use of specific examples is encouraged, we will not be able to accept articles that detail previously unpublished analyses or results. 

We encourage the inclusion of trainees and/or junior faculty as authors on Method/ology submissions, with a limit of 5 authors for each piece. Authors should consider giving brief, descriptive titles to facilitate identification of these articles in searches.

Article Structure: We encourage you to cover the following topics as appropriate to the subject of the article:

--Why is it important?

--When should it be used?

--What are the limitations?

--Where does this fall in the hierarchy of evidence?

----Real-world application (example from published literature).

 

Family Partnerships

No abstract
Article length: 2,000 words or fewer
Figures/tables: 4 or fewer
Authors: 4 or fewer
References: 10 or fewer

Hospital Pediatrics is interested in publishing articles that reflect the joint perspective of patients, families, and the health care professionals related to care of the hospitalized child and family. These articles should be written collaboratively and reflect their shared thoughts about a topic related to children's health care. Examples of topics that articles could address include shared decision-making, use of the Internet or other technologies to improve care, family-centered rounds, health care disparities, or issues related to medical education. These are just examples; the Executive Editorial Board would be willing to consider any relevant manuscript as long as it represents the voices of patients/families and health care providers. The manuscript should reflect a partnership amongst the authors.

If an individual patient's story is to be shared as a narrative, the article should not just focus on that patient's story and what went right or wrong, but instead reflect a broad perspective so that the lessons learned can be generalizable to others. The audience for these articles will primarily be health care professionals, but these articles also will be made free to the public so everyone can potentially benefit from reading the manuscript.

Specific points to consider: It would be acceptable for authors to write sections individually from their unique viewpoint. The article should contain a jointly written introduction and conclusion to ensure an overall collaborative voice.

Specific questions may be directed to Patrick Brady, MD, MSc, Editor in Chief of Hospital Pediatrics, at patrick.brady@cchmc.org.

 

Solicited Commentary

No abstract
Article length: 1,500 words or fewer
Maximum of 20 references

These contributions usually pertain to and are published concurrently with a specific article; the commentary serves to launch a broader discussion of a topic. Commentaries may address general issues or controversies in the field of pediatrics.

Commentaries are solicited by the editors. Unsolicited opinion pieces are published as Perspectives. Responses to published articles should be submitted as online Comments.

 

Perspectives

No abstract
Article length: 1,500 words or fewer

Maximum of 20 references
Maximum of 5 authors

Perspectives are unsolicited and may address any issue of interest to pediatric hospitalists. The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Perspectives.

 

Bending the Value Curve

No abstract

Article length: 1,000–1,500 words

This section focuses on the professional duty of stewardship in the care physicians provide to patients and families. The authors discuss whether high- or low-value care was provided to the patient, by considering both the quality and costs of care at different points in the patient’s illness. These may be illustrative examples of how stewardship could have been improved, how clinical care could have been improved with greater attention to value, or how clinical decisions or costs affected patients and families. The evidence surrounding decisions should be explored and placed in the context of the literature, and the overall theme of the submission should be supported by the literature. They should include exploration of key literature relevant to the topic. Submissions by trainees are particularly encouraged.

See Changing the Culture Around Cultures and Not Everything That Wheezes Is Asthma, but Most Is: Remembering Occam’s Razor for content and formatting examples.

 

Case Reports

The journal does not publish case reports.

 

Reader Comments

Hospital Pediatrics welcomes reader comments on published articles. To submit a comment, click on the "Comments" tab that appears with each article, then click on "Submit a Comment." Comments submitted via e-mail or regular mail will not be considered for posting or returned.

The editors review all comments submitted online; comments are not peer-reviewed. The decision regarding whether to post a comment is at the sole discretion of the editors; all editorial decisions are final. Once a comment has been posted on the website, you will not have the right to have it removed or edited. Hospital Pediatrics shall, however, be able to remove any comment at its discretion.

Note: Comments are online responses only. They are not published, nor cited in Medline/PubMed.

Be sure to follow all of the consideration criteria below; you will not be able to modify your comment after submission.

 

Consideration Criteria for Posting of Reader Comments:

  • To ensure timely discussion, comments are limited to articles published within the previous 6 months.
  • The editors will consider posting comments that contribute substantially to the discussion of the original article to which the reader is responding. All editorial decisions are final.
  • We will consider posting comments from all readers regardless of professional background. Decisions about posting are made based on the content, not the professional background of the respondent.
  • Hospital Pediatrics does not allow multiple comment submissions from the same reader for a particular article.
  • Comments must be in English and not exceed 500 words, not including references.
  • Comments must have no more than 3 authors.
  • Comments must have no more than 5 references.
  • Comments cannot include web links. We will remove any web links from responses chosen for posting.
  • Tables, figures, and other attachments are not allowed.
  • Hospital Pediatrics will not post comments that are, or appear in the opinion of the editor to be obscene, libelous, incomprehensible, defamatory, or rude; that include advertising, address personal health questions about the respondent or family members; or that give personal health information about identifiable individuals. The decision regarding whether to post any comment is at the sole discretion of the editors; all editorial decisions are final.
  • In general, we do not edit reader comments prior to or after posting. The editors may, at their discretion, modify submitted comments either before or after posting the comment.

 

How to Submit Reader Comments for Consideration

1. Locate the article online using the “Current Issue” or “eArchives” links.

2. To respond to the article, click the “Comments” tab. Hospital Pediatrics only allows one comment per author per article.

3. Click on the "Submit a Comment" bar.

4. Compose your comment and add your author information. (Note that no HTML tags are allowed.  Lines and paragraphs are automatically recognized. The <br /> line break, <p> paragraph and </p> close paragraph tags are inserted automatically. If paragraphs are not recognized simply add a couple of blank lines.)

5. Click "Submit".

 

How to View Comments

1. To read comments on an article that have been posted, click on the "Comments" tab.

2. Recent comments also located on the home page in the "Recent Comments" box.

 

Letters to the Editor

All Letters to the Editor must first be submitted as online comments (and must conform to comment requirements). Selected comments may then be chosen for publication in the indexed edition of Hospital Pediatrics as “Letters to the Editor.” The editors may choose to abridge and edit a comment prior to publication as a Letter to the Editor in Hospital Pediatrics without notifying or seeking approval from the author. Only these selected responses will be cited in MedLine.

At the time of provisional acceptance, the comment author will receive instructions for submitting an online copyright form. No comment will be scheduled for an issue’s Letters to the Editor section and move onto production until the copyright form is complete.

 

Errata

The corresponding author of an article can request a correction to a published manuscript. The editors will decide if an erratum is in order. If the error is an author-generated error, the cost of publishing the erratum will be billed to the author. Email hpedseditorial@aap.org if you wish to request an erratum.

 

Data Sharing

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requires ICMJE journals to include data sharing statements in articles that report results of clinical trials.

Data sharing statements must include:

  • Whether deidentified participant data (including data dictionaries) will be shared
  • The data that will be shared
  • Whether additional documents will be made available
  • The start and end dates of data availability
  • Access criteria
  • How the data will be made available

The data sharing statement must be included on the title page of your manuscript and entered into the section provided in the manuscript management system.

If you will not be sharing your data, insert the following statement on your title page and in the manuscript submission system.

Data Sharing Statement: Deidentified individual participant data will not be made available.

If you will be sharing your data, refer to the table in the data sharing section of the ICMJE clinical trials page for examples of how to incorporate the required information into your statement, and refer to the example below.

Data Sharing Statement: Deidentified individual participant data (including data dictionaries) will be made available, in addition to study protocols, the statistical analysis plan, and the informed consent form. The data will be made available upon publication to researchers who provide a methodologically sound proposal for use in achieving the goals of the approved proposal. Proposals should be submitted to ____________[INSERT EMAIL ADDRESS OR OTHER CONTACT INFORMATION].

 

Figures, Tables, and Supplementary Material

Figure/Table Limits

We will not print more than 5 figures or tables per manuscript. More than 5 figures or tables may be submitted but must be designated as supplementary material by the author and will only appear online.

Figures

Authors should number figures in the order in which they appear in the text. Figures include graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations. Each figure should be accompanied by a legend that does not exceed 50 words. Abbreviations previously expanded in the text are acceptable. If a figure is reproduced from another source, authors are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder, and proof of permission must be uploaded at the time of submission. Adapted figures need to be labeled "adapted" in the source line. For reprinted figures, the source line needs to include "reprinted with permission." Figure arrays should be clearly labeled, preassembled, and submitted to scale. Figure parts of an array (A, B, C, etc.) should be clearly marked in capital letters in the upper left-hand corner of each figure part. To maintain blinding for peer review, do not include institution logos on figures.

 

Technical requirements for figures: The following file types are acceptable: TIFF, EPS, and PDF.

Color figures: Figures should be in black and white. Color figures should be used only where there is a definite need. If color is necessary, color files must be in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) mode. It is best to submit figures in the form in which they should be printed (black and white or color).

Style for figures: Readers should be able to understand figures without referring to the text. Avoid pie charts, 3-dimensional graphs, and excess ink in general. Make sure that the axes on graphs are labeled, including units of measurement, and that the font is large enough to read. Generally, delete legends or other material from the graph if it makes the picture smaller. Color graphs should be interpretable if photocopied in black and white.

Hospital Pediatrics cannot accept Excel or PowerPoint files for any part of your submission.

 

Tables

Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text and include appropriate headers. Tables should not reiterate information presented in the Results section, but rather should provide clear and concise data that further illustrate the main point. Tabular data should directly relate to the hypothesis. Table formatting should follow the current edition of the AMA Manual of Style. To maintain blinding for peer review, do not include institution logos on tables.

Style for tables: Tables should be self-explanatory. Avoid abbreviations; define any abbreviations in footnotes to the table. Avoid excess digits and excess ink in general. Where possible, rows should be in a meaningful order (e.g., descending order of frequency). Provide units of measurement for all numbers. In general, only one type of data should be in each column of the table.

 

Presentation of Numbers and Statistics

  • Results in the abstract and the paper generally should include estimates of effect size and 95% confidence intervals, not just P-values or statements that a difference was statistically significant.
  • Statistical methods for obtaining all P-values should be provided.
  • Units of independent variables must be provided in tables and results sections if regression coefficients are provided.

Authors should avoid expressing effect sizes in the form of highly derived statistics.

Equations should be typed exactly as they are to appear in the final manuscript. The following table, adapted from the guidelines for authors for the Annals of Internal Medicine by editors of Medical Decision Making, shows how to present certain percentages and some statistical measures:

Reporting

Details

Percentages

Report percentages to one decimal place (i.e., xx.x%) when sample size is greater than or equal to 200.

To avoid the appearance of a level of precision that is not present with small samples, do not use decimal places (i.e., xx%, not xx.x%) when sample size is less than 200.

Error Measures

Report confidence intervals, rather than standard errors, when possible. Use "mean (error measures)" rather than "mean ± error measure" notation.

P values

Except when one-sided tests are required by study design, such as in noninferiority trials, all reported P values should be two-sided. In general, P values larger than 0.01 should be reported to two decimal places, those between 0.01 and 0.001 to three decimal places; P values smaller than 0.001 should be reported as P [is less than sign]0.001. Notable exceptions to this policy include P values arising in the application of stopping rules to the analysis of clinical trials and genetic-screening studies.

"Trend"

Use the word trend when describing a test for trend or dose-response.

Avoid the term "trend" when referring to p-values near but not below 0.05. In such instances, simply report a difference and the confidence interval of the difference (if appropriate) with or without the p-value.

 

Supplemental Information

Authors may wish to include additional information as part of their article for inclusion in the online edition of Hospital Pediatrics. References to any online supplemental information must appear in the main article. Such supplemental information can include but are not limited to additional tables, figures, videos, audio files, slide shows, data sets (including qualitative data), and online appendices. If your study is based on a survey, consider submitting your survey instrument or the key questions as a data supplement. Authors are responsible for clearly labeling supplemental information and are accountable for its accuracy. Supplemental information will be peer reviewed, but not professionally copyedited.

 

Videos

Hospital Pediatrics encourages the submission of videos to accompany articles where relevant. Links can be placed in the article for use when it is accessed electronically. All videos must adhere to the same general permission rules that apply to figures (i.e.: parental consent when a patient is identifiable).

All videos should be submitted at the desired reproduction size and length. To avoid excessive delays in downloading the files, videos should be no more than 6MB in size, and run between 30 and 60 seconds in length. In addition, cropping frames and image sizes can significantly reduce file sizes. Files submitted can be looped to play more than once, provided file size does not become excessive. Video format must be either .mov or .mp4.

Authors will be notified if problems exist with videos as submitted, and will be asked to modify them if needed. No editing will be done to the videos at the editorial office—all changes are the responsibility of the author.

Video files should be named clearly to correspond with the figure they represent (i.e., figure1.mov, figure2.mp4, etc.). Be sure all video files have filenames that are no more than 8 characters long and include the suffix “.mov” or “.mp4.” A caption for each video should be provided (preferably in a similarly named Word file submitted with the videos), stating clearly the content of the video presentation and its relevance to the materials submitted.

IMPORTANT: One to four traditional still images from the video must be provided. These still images may be published in the print edition of the article and will act as thumbnail images in the electronic edition that will link to the full video file. Please indicate clearly in your text whether a figure has a video associated with it, and be sure to indicate the name of the corresponding video file. A brief figure legend should also be provided.

 

Manuscript Submission

  1. Go to https://submit-hospitalpediatrics.aappublications.org/ and sign in, or click the “create a new account” link if you are a first-time user.
  2. You should be automatically be taken to your Author Area at sign-in.
  3. Click “Submit a new manuscript” to begin your submission.

You must complete each step to submit your manuscript. Use proper capitalization - Do not use all CAPS, or all lowercase, or HTML. Click on the “Save/Continue” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.

Submission Guide. The first screen you’ll see is the “Submission Guide.” This page provides a description of each article type and guidance on what is required for each section of the submission system. Once you’ve reviewed this page, click “Begin Submission” at the bottom of the page.

Manuscript Basics. Select your article type and enter the title, short title, and abstract. Review your article type in the Submission Guide or here in the Author Guidelines for more information.

Abstract, Cover Letter and Questions. Enter your abstract and cover letter in the text boxes provided. If your article type does not require an abstract, type “NA” in the text box.

Keywords. Enter the appropriate keywords/categories for your submission.

Reviewer Suggestions/Exclusions. To indicate any preferred and non-preferred reviewers, enter the reviewer's information in the appropriate sections.

Author List. To add yourself as an author, click the “Add Author” button, then the “I Am This Author” button in the top right corner of the popup screen. If you are also the corresponding author, click the “Mark as Corresponding Author” box, then click “Save.” You can add additional authors by entering their email address to search for them in the system. You can change the author order in your list by dragging author entries to the desired position.

Submission Proofing. Here you will review the data entered for each step. You can revise any section by clicking the “Edit” button next to the section you’d like to revise.

Manuscript Files. In this step, you will be prompted to upload your files. If you are submitting a revision, see below.

The first screen you’ll see includes information on the file types supported for each upload type (manuscript file, image files (which include tables and figures), and supplemental data or additional files). Click Save/Continue to submit your files.

You will see the link “Upload your title page” in the middle of the screen. Click here to upload your Title Page (which should include your Contributors’ Statement Page and Acknowledgments). Once you’ve uploaded your Title Page separately, you can then upload your manuscript and table/figure files.

Your main manuscript file should be submitted by dragging the file into the green box labeled “Drop manuscript files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box. Labels are preferred, but not required. Please note that these labels are not a substitute for the required table/figure legends [link to tables/figures requirements section of author guidelines] in your manuscript files.

Your table and figure files should be submitted by dragging them into the gray box labeled “Drop image and table/figure files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box.

Supplemental data files should be submitted by dragging them into the blue box labeled “Drop supplemental files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box. Once you drag a file into this box, you will have the option of checking an “Internal Use” box if the file provided is for editor use only and not to be shared with the peer reviewers. 

Once you’ve dragged over or selected your files, click “Upload Files” to complete the upload. Once you are taken to the next screen, use the navigation links on the left-hand side to move to the next step.

Revision Submission

The first screen you’ll see includes information on the file types supported for each upload type (manuscript file, image files (which include tables and figures), and supplemental data or additional files). Click Save/Continue to submit your files.

You will see the link “Upload your title page” in the middle of the screen. Click here to upload your Title Page (which should include your Contributors’ Statement Page and Acknowledgments). Once you’ve uploaded your Title Page separately, you can then upload your manuscript and table/figure files.

The clean version of your manuscript file should be submitted by dragging the file into the green box labeled “Drop manuscript files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box. Labels are preferred, but not required. Please note that these labels are not a substitute for the required table/figure legends in your manuscript files.

Your table and figure files should be submitted by dragging them into the gray box labeled “Drop image and table/figure files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box.

Your response to reviewers and track changes version of your manuscript should be submitted by dragging them into the blue box labeled “Drop supplemental files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box. Other supplemental files should also be submitted here. Once you drag a file into this box, you will have the option of checking an “Internal Use” box if the file provided is for editor use only and not to be shared with the peer reviewers. Your response to reviewers and track changes version should not be marked for internal use. Be sure to order these files so the response to reviewers file is first and the tracked version of your manuscript is second. All other supplemental files (supplemental figures/tables/data) should follow.

Once you’ve dragged over or selected your files, click “Upload Files” to complete the upload. Once you are taken to the next screen, use the navigation links on the left-hand side to move to the next step.

 

Conditions of Publication

All authors are required to affirm the following statements before their manuscript is considered:

  • That the manuscript is being submitted only to Hospital Pediatrics, that it will not be submitted elsewhere while under consideration, that it has not been published elsewhere, and, should it be published in Hospital Pediatrics, that it will not be published elsewhere—either in similar form or verbatim—without permission of the editors. These restrictions do not apply to abstracts or to press reports of presentations at scientific meetings.
  • That all authors are responsible for reported research.
  • That all authors have participated in the concept and design; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting or revising of the manuscript, and that they have approved the manuscript as submitted.
  • All authors are also required to disclose any professional affiliation, financial agreement, or other involvement with any company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript.

 

Copyright

At the time of acceptance, all authors will receive instructions for submitting a copyright form. No paper will be published until all authors have completed their copyright form. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to collect and provide to the publisher all copyrights from all authors.

Note: We cannot accept any copyright which has been altered, revised, amended, or otherwise changed. Our original copyright form must be used as is.

 

Resources

A Practical Guide to Manuscript Writing With Particular Relevance to the Field of Pediatric Hospital Medicine

Bringing Scientific Rigor to Survey Design in Health Care Research

Basic Statistics for Comparing the Centers of Continuous Data From Two Groups

Basic Statistics for Comparing Categorical Data From 2 or More Groups

Tools for Medical Education Scholarship: From Curricular Development to Educational Research

 

Editorial Office

Publisher

American Academy of Pediatrics
345 Park Blvd
Itasca, IL 60143
hpedseditorial@aap.org

 

References

  1. Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.
  2. Lundberg GD. SI unit implementation: the next step. JAMA. 1988;260:73-76.
  3. Système International conversion factors for frequently used laboratory components. JAMA. 1991;266:45-47.
  4. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. http://www.icmje.org.

 

Ver 04.20.23

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