OBJECTIVES The health care system faces ongoing challenges due to low-value care. Building on the first pediatric hospital medicine contribution to the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation Choosing Wisely Campaign, a working group was convened to identify additional priorities for improving health care value for hospitalized children. METHODS A study team composed of nominees from national pediatric medical professional societies was convened, including pediatric hospitalists with expertise in clinical care, hospital leadership, and research. The study team surveyed national pediatric hospitalist LISTSERVs for suggestions, condensed similar responses, and performed a literature search of articles published in the previous 10 years. Using a modified Delphi process, the team completed a series of structured ratings of feasibility and validity and facilitated group discussion. The sum of final mean validity and feasibility scores was used to identify the 5 highest priority recommendations. RESULTS Two hundred seven respondents suggested 397 preliminary recommendations, yielding 74 unique recommendations that underwent evidence review and rating. The 5 highest-scoring recommendations had a focus on the following aspects of hospital care: (1) length of intravenous antibiotic therapy before transition to oral antibiotics, (2) length of stay for febrile infants evaluated for serious bacterial infection, (3) phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, (4) antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia, and (5) initiation of intravenous antibiotics in infants with maternal risk factors for sepsis. CONCLUSIONS We propose that pediatric hospitalists can use this list to prioritize quality improvement and scholarly work focused on improving the value and quality of patient care for hospitalized children.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the United States quintupled between 2000 and 2012, little is known about the family perspective of the hospital stay. We interviewed families to understand their experiences during the newborn hospitalization for NAS and to improve family-centered care. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team from 3 hospital units composed open-ended interview questions based on a literature review, clinical experience, and an internal iterative process. Trained investigators conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 families of newborns with NAS at hospital discharge. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two investigators independently analyzed each transcript, identified themes via an inductive qualitative approach, and reached a consensus on each code. The research team sorted the themes into broader domains through an iterative process that required consensus of 4 team members. RESULTS: Five domains of family experience were identified: parents’ desire for education about the course and treatment of NAS; parents valuing their role in the care team; quality of interactions with staff (supportive versus judgmental) and communication regarding clinical course; transfers between units and inconsistencies among providers; and external factors such as addiction recovery and economic limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Families face many challenges during newborn hospitalization for NAS. Addressing parental needs through improved perinatal education, increased involvement in the care team, consistent care and communication, and minimized transitions in care could improve the NAS hospital experience. The results of this qualitative study may allow for improvements in family-centered care of infants with NAS.