OBJECTIVES To describe testing and treatment practices for Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. We included children 3 months to 18 years old hospitalized with CAP between 2012 and 2018 and excluded children who were transferred from another hospital and those with complex chronic conditions. We examined the proportion of patients receiving Mp testing and macrolide therapy at the hospital level and trends in Mp testing and macrolide prescription over time. At the patient level, we examined differences in demographics, illness severity (eg, blood gas, chest tube placement), and outcomes (eg, ICU admission, length of stay, readmission) among patients with and without Mp testing. RESULTS Among 103 977 children hospitalized with CAP, 17.3% underwent Mp testing and 31.1% received macrolides. We found no correlation between Mp testing and macrolide treatment at the hospital level (R2 = 0.05; P = .11). Patients tested for Mp were more likely to have blood gas analysis (15.8% vs 12.8%; P < .1), chest tube placement (1.4% vs 0.8%; P < .1), and ICU admission (3.1% vs 1.4%; P < .1). Mp testing increased (from 15.8% to 18.6%; P < .001), and macrolide prescription decreased (from 40.9% to 20.6%; P < .001) between 2012 and 2018. CONCLUSIONS Nearly one-third of hospitalized children with CAP received macrolide antibiotics, although macrolide prescription decreased over time. Clinicians were more likely to perform Mp testing in children with severe illness, and Mp testing and macrolide treatment were not correlated at the hospital level.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with deep neck infections (DNIs) are increasingly being managed nonsurgically with intravenous antibiotics. Our objective was to examine variation in the management of children with DNIs across US children’s hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Children ≤12 years of age hospitalized for retropharyngeal or parapharyngeal abscesses from 2010 to 2018 were included. Hospital variation in management modality and imaging use was described. Temporal trends in management modality were assessed by using logistic regression. Medical management alone versus a combination of medical and surgical management was assessed, and the characteristics of children in these 2 groups were compared. The relationship between hospital rates of initial medical management and failed medical management was assessed by using linear regression. RESULTS: Hospitals varied widely in their rates of surgical management from 17% to 70%. The overall rate of surgical management decreased from 42.0% to 33.5% over the study period. Children managed surgically had higher rates of ICU admission (11.5% vs 3.2%; P < .001) and higher hospital charges ($25 241 vs $15 088; P < .001) compared with those managed medically alone. Seventy-three percent of children underwent initial medical management, of whom 17.9% went on to undergo surgery. Hospitals with higher rates of initial medical management had lower rates of failed medical management (β = −.43). CONCLUSIONS: Although rates of surgical management of pediatric DNI are decreasing over time, there remains considerable variation in management across US children’s hospitals. Children managed surgically have higher rates of resource use and costs.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the characteristics of children hospitalized with complicated pneumonia at US children’s hospitals and compare these characteristics with those of children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: We identified children hospitalized with complicated pneumonia (parapneumonic effusion, empyema, necrotizing pneumonia, or lung abscess) or CAP across 34 hospitals between 2011 and 2019. We evaluated differences in patient characteristics, antibiotic selection, and outcomes between children with complicated pneumonia and CAP. We, also, assessed seasonal variability in the frequency of these 2 conditions and evaluated the prevalence of complicated pneumonia over the 9-year study period. RESULTS: Compared with children hospitalized with CAP (n = 75 702), children hospitalized with complicated pneumonia (n = 6402) were older (a median age of 6.1 vs 3.4 years; P < .001), with 59.4% and 35.2% of patients ≥5 years of age, respectively. Patients with complicated pneumonia had higher rates of antibiotic therapy targeted against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (46.3% vs 12.2%; P < .001) and Pseudomonas (8.6% vs 6.7%; P < .001), whereas differences in rates of coverage against mycoplasma were not clinically significant. Children with complicated pneumonia had a longer median hospital length of stay and higher rates of ICU admissions, mechanical ventilation, 30-day readmissions, and costs. Seasonal variation existed in both complicated pneumonia and CAP, with 42.7% and 46.0% of hospitalizations occurring during influenza season. The proportion of pneumonia hospitalizations due to complicated pneumonia increased over the study period (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.06). CONCLUSIONS: Complicated pneumonia more frequently occurs in older children and accounts for higher rates of resource use, compared to CAP.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The yield of blood cultures in children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is low. Characteristics of children at increased risk of bacteremia remain largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of children aged 3 months to 18 years hospitalized with CAP in 6 children’s hospitals from 2007 to 2011. We excluded children with complex chronic conditions and children without blood cultures performed at admission. Clinical, laboratory, microbiologic, and radiologic data were assessed to identify predictors of bacteremia. RESULTS: Among 7509 children hospitalized with CAP, 2568 (34.2%) had blood cultures performed on the first day of hospitalization. The median age was 3 years. Sixty-five children with blood cultures performed had bacteremia (2.5%), and 11 children (0.4%) had bacteremia with a penicillin-nonsusceptible pathogen. The prevalence of bacteremia was increased in children with a white blood cell count >20 × 103 cells per µL (5.4%; 95% confidence interval 3.5%–8.1%) and in children with definite radiographic pneumonia (3.3%; 95% confidence interval 2.4%–4.4%); however, the prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible bacteremia was below 1% even in the presence of individual predictors. Among children hospitalized outside of the ICU, the prevalence of contaminated blood cultures exceeded the prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible bacteremia. CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of bacteremia is marginally higher among children with leukocytosis or radiographic pneumonia, the rates remain low, and penicillin-nonsusceptible bacteremia is rare even in the presence of these predictors. Blood cultures should not be obtained in children hospitalized with CAP in a non-ICU setting.