Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of retinal vascular development in preterm infants. It remains a major cause of childhood blindness worldwide. This review addresses advances in knowledge during the past 8 years. The pathogenesis has become clearer with animal experimental work and from clinical observations. Large clinical trials have informed better management, and new retinal digital imaging is likely to change the role of the ophthalmologist. New treatment modalities, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-blocking antibodies, are being assessed. Finally, a number of evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of ROP have been published.

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