Infants born late preterm are immature and have significant risks for short-term and long-term morbidities. During the birth hospitalization and first weeks after birth, hypothermia, respiratory distress, apnea, temperature instability, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and feeding problems may result in prolonged hospital stays or readmission for additional care. Mortality risk is also greater during the first postnatal year. A higher risk for long-term complications, including developmental delays, school failure, behavior disorders, and social disabilities, has been identified in children and young adults. Priorities in management of infants born late preterm include early identification of acute medical complications and long-term disabilities. Efforts to avoid late preterm birth, if medically safe for fetus and mother, also are warranted.