Diabetes is one of the most common medical complications affecting pregnancy. Diabetes in pregnancy is classified into two categories: pregestational diabetes and gestational diabetes (GDM). Pregestational diabetes comprises both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. GDM refers to those individuals diagnosed with carbohydrate intolerance during pregnancy. Regardless of the type of diabetes, pregnancies complicated by diabetes require specialized care and management to ensure the best outcomes for both the mother and the fetus. The management of diabetes is aimed at controlling fasting and postprandial blood glucose concentrations to decrease the known maternal and neonatal sequelae of GDM, including stillbirth, macrosomia, and neonatal metabolic derangements. In general, a carbohydrate-controlled diet, vigilant monitoring of glucose values, and in many individuals, insulin therapy form the mainstay of therapy. In addition to glucose control, increased fetal surveillance is necessary to ensure proper development, appropriate growth, and fetal well-being. Although diabetes requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes physicians and nurses who have specialized training in diabetes, pediatricians, and nutritionists, good outcomes can be observed.

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