Great progress has been made in the care of the pregnant woman who has diabetes. Despite this, the risk of the infant of a diabetic mother (IDM) having macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, respiratory distress syndrome, polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and cardiomyopathy remains. In addition, the IDM has an increased incidence of congenital anomalies, poor neurobehavioral development, and obesity and metabolic abnormalities in later life. Fastidious attention to maternal diabetic control in both the preconceptual and pregnancy periods reduces the risk of these morbidities.

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