Proteomic technologies and disease-specific biomarkers are being increasingly explored across diverse fields of medicine. The care of the neonate is defined by both a unique patient population and acquired postnatal morbidities that are largely a function of failed adaptation to postnatal life. However, most current diagnostic clinical tests for the neonate suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity or simply rely on a morphologic description of end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss proteomic technologies for the discovery and translation of biomarkers to clinical use, emphasizing unique potential neonatal disease applications.

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