The immune system has evolved to fend off challenges from a wide array of pathogens while maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and benign environmental antigens. CD4 helper T cells are critical in regulating these processes with different subsets of CD4 T cells responsible for regulating different facets of the immune system. T helper 1 (Th1) cells, which contribute to antiviral immunity, and T helper 2 (Th2) cells, which contribute to antihelminth immunity and allergy, were the first CD4 T cell subsets to be discovered. Recently a number of new subsets have been discovered. Here we review what is known about CD4 T cell subsets with particular focus on neonatal immunity.

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