Perinatal asphyxia is associated with decreased delivery of oxygen and glucose to the brain. The goal of resuscitation is to provide adequate substrate delivery to restore brain function. However, studies in children and adults suggest that excessive glucose supply after an episode of hypoxic-ischemia may result in further brain injury. Thus, the optimal level of glucose to provide during and after resuscitation has not been determined. In this review, we summarize the available data from animal and human studies and discuss the role of glucose in recovery from asphyxia.