Owing to advances in the care of infants with congenital heart disease, more patients are surviving not only infancy, but into adulthood. Therefore, there is a growing emphasis on the potential for long-term disability and quality of life in these patients. Follow-up studies have shown an increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Unlike some patients who may have one underlying risk for neurologic disability, patients with congenital heart disease often have multiple risk factors, which may be inherent to the patient’s condition or may be potentially modifiable. Recent advances in neuroimaging, surgical techniques, and perioperative care may help to inform our evaluation and treatment of infants with congenital heart disease so as to optimize outcomes.

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