Optimal nutrition and growth in patients with severe, established bronchopulmonary dysplasia are complex and require an understanding of the factors and challenges that affect this population. Most publications have reported weight gain as the primary outcome because of ease of measurement, accuracy, and repeatability. There is, however, increasing evidence that linear growth is better correlated with long-term development and pulmonary outcomes. In addition, factors such as stress, inflammation, respiratory support and stability, and medication exposures have a direct influence on achieving nutritional success in infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This article reviews concepts related to these challenges and provides recommendations for achieving successful nutrition in this population.

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