When a newborn has suspected or confirmed hypoxemia, clinical measures for evaluation and treatment are started without delay, which is appropriate. Oxygen is among the most widely used drugs in neonatal care, but the adverse effects of excess oxygen administration, hyperoxemia, and hyperoxia are not addressed in a similar way. This review describes issues of clinical significance related to oxygenation and saturation targets with the main objective of decreasing morbidities associated with excess oxygen use.

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