Gestational and pregestational diabetes make up the most common maternal metabolic disorder of pregnancy. Suboptimal control of blood glucose has the potential for serious maternal and neonatal adverse effects. Neonates of diabetic mothers are at risk for congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, preeclampsia, preterm birth, increased birthweight, neonatal hypoglycemia and respiratory distress. The nature and severity of risks depend on the timing and duration of hyperglycemia. Through glycemic control and proper prenatal care, many of these risks can be mitigated. Pediatric providers must be sensitive to the association between a newborn’s risk and the mother’s level of glycemic control, often linked to her adherence to prenatal care.

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