A tracheoesophageal fistula may occur as an isolated congenital or acquired lesion; however, most cases are associated with esophageal atresia at birth. Although the absolute etiology of these lesions is yet to be determined, much has been learned from embryologic studies and syndromic associations. Diagnosis most often is made in the first days after birth, yet fetal cases are now being increasingly reported. Anatomic classifications have been well defined, but prognostic systems continue to evolve. Furthermore, evolution in medical and surgical management has vastly improved the prognosis for these lesions since the first reported survivor nearly 80 years ago. It is exciting to think what the future may hold with regard to treatment of complex cases or comorbidities, and the development of minimally invasive therapies.

You do not currently have access to this content.