The main purpose of therapeutic cooling is neuroprotection of asphyxiated infants with significant hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, to improve the overall outcome, it is necessary to properly manage the full range of multiple organ system complications found in asphyxiated infants undergoing therapeutic cooling. Every physiologic process in an asphyxiated infant can potentially be affected by the cooling treatment. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effect of cooling on neonatal physiology in the current recommended cooling range and the management thereof.

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