Congenital pigmentary anomalies may be evident at birth or soon after, with some birthmarks becoming apparent later in infancy or early childhood. It is important to recognize various pigmentary anomalies in the neonate, most of which are benign but a subset of which are associated with cutaneous morbidity or systemic ramifications and require further evaluation. This review will focus on pigmentary mosaicism, congenital melanocytic nevi, nevus spilus, dermal melanocytosis, and pigmentary anomalies associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (café au lait spots, freckling, plexiform neurofibromas, nevus anemicus), tuberous sclerosis (hypomelanotic macules), and incontinentia pigmenti.

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