Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of 1 or more sutures that normally separate the bony plates of an infant’s skull and occurs in about 1 in 2,000 to 2,500 live births. Primary or congenital craniosynostoses represent the majority of cases and consist of single-suture and multisuture synostoses. Multisuture synostoses are typically associated with distinct craniofacial syndromes, including Muenke syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Pfeiffer syndrome, and are thus categorized under syndromic craniosynostoses. Secondary causes of craniosynostoses include metabolic or hematologic disorders that affect bone metabolism and typically present much later than primary synostoses. The severity of the deformity and the presence of increased intracranial pressure dictate the need for early surgical intervention, prompting the importance of early recognition and timely referral. Infants with craniosynostosis are also at increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairment and thus require close follow-up and monitoring. The early recognition and referral of craniosynostosis is imperative for the optimization of management and minimization of potential neurologic impairments that may develop.

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