A male infant with a birthweight of 2,510 g (3% to 10%) is born at 38 weeks’ gestation to a 29-year-old gravida 3, para 1 asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–positive woman without any sepsis risk factors. At 2 days of age, the neonate has cyanotic episodes during breastfeeding, which improve with spontaneous crying. The neonatology team evaluates the infant and is unable to pass a feeding tube through either naris but is able to easily pass an orogastric tube. The infant’s physical examination findings are otherwise normal. Over the next 24 hours, he develops severe respiratory distress that does not improve with noninvasive ventilation and leads to abdominal distention. The infant then requires invasive ventilation; the postintubation chest radiograph is shown in the Fig.

Question 1. What is the most likely cause of this neonate’s respiratory distress?

Question 2. Based on the infant’s clinical and radiographic findings as well...

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