Neonatal patients and families from historically marginalized and discriminated communities have long been documented to have differential access to health care, disparate health care, and as a result, inequitable health outcomes. Fundamental to these processes is an understanding of what race and ethnicity represent for patients and how different levels of racism act as social determinants of health. The NICU presents a unique opportunity to intervene with regard to the detrimental ways in which structural, institutional, interpersonal, and internalized racism affect the health of newborn infants. The aim of this article is to provide neonatal clinicians with a foundational understanding of race, racism, and antiracism within medicine, as well as concrete ways in which health care professionals in the field of neonatology can contribute to antiracism and health equity in their professional careers.

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