Urinary tract dilation (UTD), previously known as hydronephrosis, is the most common congenital condition identified on prenatal ultrasonography. UTD can be physiologic and resolve spontaneously or can be caused by various congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, which can lead to renal failure if not treated properly. In 2014, a multidisciplinary consensus group established UTD definitions, a classification system, and a standardized scheme for perinatal evaluation. Various imaging modalities are available to help diagnose the cause of UTD in fetuses and neonates and to help identify those patients who may benefit from fetal or early postnatal intervention. In this article, we will review the diagnosis and quantification of antenatal and postnatal UTD based on the UTD classification system, outline the imaging studies available to both evaluateUTD and determine its cause, briefly review the most common causes of UTD in the fetus and neonate, outline management strategies for UTD including the role for fetal intervention and prophylactic antibiotics, and report on the outcome and prognosis in patients with UTD.

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