Preterm and critically ill infants are at risk for hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Common risk factors for HTG include prematurity, intravenous lipid emulsion dose and oil composition, reduced lipoprotein lipase activity, fetal growth restriction, sepsis, and renal failure. Despite these risk factors, clinicians lack a universally agreed upon definition for HTG and evidence-based approach to HTG management. This review provides a detailed overview of triglyceride and intravenous lipid emulsion metabolism and how this relates to specific HTG risk factors, along with some practical considerations for managing HTG in the neonatal population.

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