The overall prevalence of opiate use has been increasing, currently affecting approximately 0.6% of the global population and resulting in a significant proportion of infants being born with prenatal opioid exposure. Animal and human models of prenatal opioid exposure demonstrate detrimental effects on brain anatomy as well as neurodevelopment. Less is known about the neurologic sequelae of postnatal opioid exposure in hospitalized infants. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the impact of prenatal and postnatal opioid exposure on the brain and on neurodevelopment outcomes. We also identify resources and management strategies that may help mitigate neurodevelopmental delays and deficits associated with opioid exposure in this vulnerable population.

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