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A 2005 National Library of Medicine PubMed literature search on C-reactive protein (CRP) limited to human neonates and English language identified about 160 citations. Only two of these articles referenced a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Despite the large body of literature on CRP, there is no established standard of practice for the use of CRP in assessment of neonatal sepsis.

Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network indicate that the rate of early-onset sepsis is 1.5% in very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants; almost half (46%) of neonates born at less than 25 weeks’ gestation develop late-onset sepsis. Current recommendations for the treatment of neonates who have possible or proven sepsis are intravenous antibiotics for 48 to 72 hours for stable infants who have negative blood culture results and for 7 to 14 days for blood...

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