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Polyhydramnios, sometimes referred to as hydramnios, is a relatively uncommon complication affecting pregnancy that refers to the presence of an excessive amount of amniotic fluid relative to gestational age. Onset may be gradual or sudden, based on the cause. Gradual onset may be largely asymptomatic. In this situation, the diagnosis is suspected when fundal height exceeds that expected for gestational age. In contrast, sudden onset of polyhydramnios often is symptomatic, characterized by contractions and significant abdominal discomfort. Polyhydramnios has potential serious consequences, primarily related to the cause, but also due to the increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, such as preterm labor (PTL) or preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM).

The exact incidence of polyhydramnios is unknown because mild, asymptomatic cases may be discovered only at the time of delivery and are underreported. Several series have suggested that the incidence...

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