Hydrocephalus is the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the ventricles of the brain. Hydrocephalus can be caused by a blockage of CSF flow (obstructive hydrocephalus) or failure to absorb CSF (communicating hydrocephalus). Hydrocephalus can be present at birth (congenital hydrocephalus) or develop later in life (acquired hydrocephalus). There are numerous causes of hydrocephalus, the most common being hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningocele and post- hemorrhagic hydrocephalus as a complication of preterm birth.

One treatment of hydrocephalus is the placement of a shunt, which is a flexible tube, to carry the extra CSF from the ventricle of the brain to another area of the body. The most common distal site for a shunt is the peritoneal cavity in the abdomen. These shunts are ventriculoperitoneal shunts. A successful shunt relieves pressure on the brain, controlling the rate of head growth and maximizing developmental potential.

Source: Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child...

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