• Vision screening should be a routine part of every primary care visit, with physical examination from birth and formal acuity testing from 3 years on.

  • Elements of the physical examination include inspection, red reflex evaluation, corneal light reflection, cover-uncover test.

  • Instrument-based testing can begin at 1 year of age until chart-based acuity testing is possible from 3 years on.

  • Amblyopia, which results in permanent vision loss, is preventable with early detection—before 5 years of age.

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