Congenital muscular torticollis is the most common cause of torticollis in the infant and young child.
Craniofacial asymmetry is usually a key distinguishing feature between congenital and acquired torticollis.
Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for initial evaluation.
Manual stretching, caregiver education, and environmental modifications represent the primary initial treatments in infants and young children. Referral for surgical evaluation should be considered if torticollis persists beyond 12 months of age, there is severe deformity, or there are radiographic abnormalities of the cervical spine.