• Inherited hemoglobin disorders account for most common single-gene defect in humans.

  • Thalassemias are caused by mutations in the globin gene cluster, resulting in a decrease in globin chain synthesis while structural hemoglobinopathies usually result from a point mutation in the α- or β-globin gene that causes a functional abnormality.

  • High-performance liquid chromatography has become the test of choice for the diagnosis of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies because it reliably separates different hemoglobins.

  • Newborn screening has helped with early diagnosis and management, thus decreasing morbidity and improving longevity.

  • Blood transfusion, and appropriate use of iron chelating agents are mainstay of the treatment. Use of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis starting from the neonatal period and appropriate vaccinations have decreased morbidity and improved survival in patients with sickle cell disease.

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