• Pyloric stenosis (PS) is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy of the antropyloric muscles, which can progress to gastric outlet obstruction leading to forceful vomiting, dehydration, and hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis.

  • Precise etiology is unclear, but risk factors include male sex, preterm birth, maternal smoking, family history of PS (especially in the mother), and early postnatal exposure to macrolides.

  • Most commonly presents in newborns and infants 3 to 6 weeks of age.

  • Until late stages of dehydration, most infants are alert, active, and hungry despite frequent emesis.

  • Management is almost always surgical after correction of electrolyte abnormalities, and postoperative prognosis is excellent.

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