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hemoglobin

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Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: April 2020
...Deepak M. Kamat, MD, PhD, FAAP Key Points Inherited hemoglobin disorders account for most common single-gene defect in humans. Thalassemias are caused by mutations in the globin gene cluster, resulting in a decrease in globin chain synthesis while structural hemoglobinopathies usually result...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: May 2016
... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) decrease. Erythroid iron supply is diminished, but hemoglobin concentration remains in the normal range. Serum transferrin saturation is increased in the first or second stage of iron deficiency. Soluble transferrin receptors (sTfRs) are increased, zinc protoporphyrin...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: March 2021
..., this change should be addressed as early as possible. Initial laboratory evaluation for obesity screening can include a nonfasting or fasting lipid profile, a hemoglobin A1c test (or glucose test, if the patient is fasting), and an alanine aminotransferase test. When a clinician is working...
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High-risk pediatric populations: risk stratification and treatment algorith...
Published: September 2020
Figure 1 High-risk pediatric populations: risk stratification and treatment algorithm. Directions: Step 1: Risk stratification by disease process. Step 2: Assess all cardiovascular risk factors. If two or more comorbidities exist, then assign patient to the next higher risk tier for subsequent management. Step 3: Tier-specific intervention cut points or treatment goals defined. Step 4: Initial therapy: for tier I,initial management is therapeutic lifestyle change plus disease-specific management. For tiers II and III, initial management is therapeutic lifestyle change. Step 5: for tiers II and III, if goals are not met after initial management, consider medication. BP, Blood pressure; CAD, coronary artery disease; CV, cardiovascular; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; FG, fasting glucose; FH, familial hypercholesterolemia; HgbA 1C , hemoglobin A 1C; ht, height; LDL, low-density lipoprotein. (Modified from Kavey R-EW, Allada V, Daniels SR, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2006;114[24]:2710-2738.) Figure 1. High-risk pediatric populations: risk stratification and treatment algorithm. Directions: Step 1: Risk stratification by disease process. Step 2: Assess all cardiovascular risk factors. If two or more comorbidities exist, then assign patient to the next higher risk tier for subsequent management. Step 3: Tier-specific intervention cut points or treatment goals defined. Step 4: Initial therapy: for tier I,initial management is therapeutic lifestyle change plus disease-specific management. For tiers II and III, initial management is therapeutic lifestyle change. Step 5: for tiers II and III, if goals are not met after initial management, consider medication. BP, Blood pressure; CAD, coronary artery disease; CV, cardiovascular; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; FG, fasting glucose; FH, familial hypercholesterolemia; HgbA 1C , hemoglobin A 1C; ht, height; LDL, low-density lipoprotein. (Modified from Kavey R-EW, Allada V, Daniels SR, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2006;114[24]:2710-2738.) More
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: August 2021
... and congenital adrenal hyperplasia) Hemoglobinopathies (ie, sickle cell disease, hemoglobin S–β-thalassemia, and hemoglobin S-C disease) Cystic fibrosis Galactosemia Biotinidase deficiency Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 2 (Pompe disease) (approved in 2015) Organic acid disorders (9...
Patient Education Handouts
Published: January 2021
... © 2019 American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved. D57 Sickle cell disease is a condition through which children have inherited, from their parents, one or more of the abnormal forms of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: August 2021
... Hemoglobin Annual screening for all children Ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) Screen any child at risk of iron deficiency on the basis of decreased iron intake. Cervical spine radiography (neutral position) Must be performed for children with Neck or radicular pain...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: August 2021
... be helpful if poisoning with methanol, ethylene glycol, or isopropanol is suspected Serum co-oximetry Measures carbon monoxide level Blood culture. Hemoglobin levels. To determine whether anemia is present Leukocyte count. May be high if altered mental status results from...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: April 2021
... and acquired Red blood cell membrane defects Hereditary spherocytosis Hereditary elliptocytosis Red blood cell hemoglobin disorders Sickle cell disease and related syndromes Thalassemia Red blood cell enzyme defects Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Pyruvate kinase...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: September 2020
... Hypercalciuria /crystalluria Hematologic disorders Drugs Anatomical anomalies Not all discolored urine indicates hematuria . The presence of blood should be confirmed by dipstick for symptoms of gross hematuria . Dipstick is highly sensitive. Reacts to hemoglobin levels as low...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: June 2020
..., so early screening is key. Early identification of sickle cell anemia by newborn screening prevents morbidity and mortality. Anemia is defined as low red blood cell mass for age. Identified in the laboratory by a low hemoglobin level for age (preferred to low hematocrit level...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_096
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... in patients with hemolytic anemias (eg, sickle cell disease and autoimmune hemolytic anemia). For children with other conditions associated with low hemoglobin concentrations, including hemorrhage and severe anemia, parvovirus B19 infection usually will not result in aplastic crisis but might result...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: November 2020
... the hemoglobin level decreases to 6 or 7 g/dL. If erythrocyte counts decrease gradually, even lower hemoglobin levels may ensue without clinically evident symptoms. Younger children especially seem to tolerate markedly low hemoglobin levels with no symptoms. Malignancy Leukemia or lymphoma...
Patient Education Handouts
Published: January 2021
... in the body. Red blood cells are filled with hemoglobin, a special pigmented protein that makes it possible to carry and deliver oxygen to other cells in the body. The cells in your child’s muscles and organs need oxygen to survive, and decreased numbers of red blood cells can place stress on the body...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_051
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... to occur, use of a 5-point peripheral blood screen has aided in the early detection of patients with HPS. Elements of the screen are: (1) hemoglobin elevated for gender/age; (2) left shift of granulocytic series; (3) absence of toxic changes; (4) thrombocytopenia; and (5) immunoblasts and plasma cells...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: April 2021
.... Hemoglobin A1c Fasting glucose Two-hour oral glucose tolerance test Fasting lipid panel Complete metabolic panel Hirsutism: presence of excessive terminal hair in androgen-dependent and male-pattern areas (especially in females) Hypertrichosis: excess hair...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: June 2020
... stores (eg, ferritin, reticulocyte count, hemoglobin content) may be useful. Managing iron deficiency even in the absence of anemia Prolactin (headaches or galactorrhea). Follicle-stimulating hormone (evaluate HPO axis). Free and total testosterone (in girls with hirsutism, acne, male...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: April 2021
.... A creatine phosphokinase when muscular pain or weakness is suspected. Sickle cell preparation or hemoglobin electrophoresis when indicated. If sexually active, consider gonorrhea and chlamydia testing at all sites of possible exposure. Radiologic studies are often unnecessary when...
Patient Education Handouts
Published: January 2021
... cell transplant Who have had heart surgery With hemoglobin disorders (eg, sickle cell disease, thalassemia) Whose platelets do not work well With life-threatening infections and few white blood cells Whose bone marrow does not work well Stories in the news of people becoming...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: November 2020
... aminotransferase (ALT) test, and fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1C test For children with a BMI greater than 95%. Obtain thyrotropin level only if there is clinical suspicion for hypothyroidism. Obtain aspartate aminotransferase level only if ALT level is elevated. Other studies...