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serum

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Published: May 2022
... was performed) since October 1, 2021. The CDC recommends the following laboratory assessment: Clinicians should consider adenovirus testing in pediatric patients with hepatitis of unknown etiology. Blood specimen collected in Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) (whole blood, plasma, or serum); whole...)
Resources
Published: May 2022
... of measles viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); (2) detection of measles virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M; (3) a fourfold increase in measles IgG antibody concentration in paired acute and convalescent serum specimens (collected at least 10 days apart); or (4) isolation...)
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: March 2022
... eosinophils Not recommended as a screening test for allergic rhinitis Serum IgE level Elevated level of total serum IgE suggests atopy. However, many patients who have allergic rhinitis have a normal level of serum IgE. Some patients with normal levels are atopic. Not recommended...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: March 2022
... in speech and language) Behavioral problems Greater height than expected from the age of 5 to 6 years onward Testosterone is often adequate to stimulate pubertal development. Serum gonadotropin levels increase after the onset of puberty, as the testes become firm and rarely grow more than 3.5...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_029_001
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... time of injury until onset of symptoms. Diagnostic Tests A toxin neutralization bioassay in mice 25 and an in vitro mass spectrometry assay can used to detect botulinum toxin in serum, stool, enema fluid, gastric aspirate, or suspect foods. Enriched selective media are required to isolate...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S4_007_003
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... with coadministered drugs. These drug interactions can result in decreased serum concentrations of the azole (ie, poor therapeutic activity) or unexpected toxicity from the coadministered drug (caused by increased serum concentrations of the coadministered drug). When considering use of azoles, the patient’s...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_160
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... transiently present in body fluids; thus, a negative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) result does not rule out infection. Likewise, a negative immunoglobulin (Ig) M serologic test result does not rule out infection, because the serum specimen might have been collected before...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_009
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... (few septa) and requires a different treatment regimen. An enzyme immunosorbent assay for detection of galactomannan, a molecule found in the cell wall of Aspergillus species, from serum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is available commercially and may be useful in children and adults...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S4_005
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... with a 20-mg/kg loading dose followed by a maintenance dose, according to the table GA ≤28 wk GA >28 wk Serum Creatinine (mg/dL ) Dosage k Serum Creatinine (mg/dL ) Dosage k <0.5 15 mg/kg every 12 h <0.7 15 mg/kg every 12 h 0.5–0.7 20 mg/kg...
Point-of-Care Quick Reference
Published: March 2022
... subcapsular cataracts Associated conditions (≥4 must be present.) Xerosis, ichthyosis, hyperlinear palms Pityriasis alba Keratosis pilaris Facial pallor, infraorbital darkening (allergic shiner) Dennie-Morgan fold Elevated level of serum IgE Keratoconus Nonspecific hand dermatitis...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_022
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Brucella species within 7 days with no need to prolong incubation. Caution should be taken with isolation of this organism because of the high risk of laboratory-acquired infection. In patients with a clinically compatible illness, serologic testing using the serum agglutination test can confirm...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_006
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... days. Longer incubation periods can occur in immunocompromised people and with tickborne viruses, such as Colorado tick fever, Powassan, and tickborne encephalitis viruses. Diagnostic Tests Arboviral infections are confirmed most frequently by detection of virus-specific antibody in serum...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_158
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... to 6 days but ranges from 2 to 14 days and can be up to 21 days in immunocompromised people and up to 37 days in solid organ transplant recipients. Diagnostic Tests Detection of anti-WNV immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the most common way to diagnose WNV...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_096
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... of initial symptoms (rash or symptoms of aplastic crisis) is between 4 and 14 days but can be as long as 21 days. Timing of the presence of high-titer parvovirus B19 DNA in serum and respiratory tract secretions indicates that people with EI are infectious before rash onset and are unlikely to be infectious...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_027
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... by testing serum to detect virus, viral nucleic acid, or virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and neutralizing antibodies. During the first week after onset of symptoms, chikungunya virus infection often can be diagnosed by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_078
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... be used on serum during the acute stage and on CSF during the neurologic phase; however, none of these assays are cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Serum specimens from the acute and convalescent phases of illness can be tested for increases in antibody titers by enzyme immunoassays...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S4_007_001
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... in dose is required for neonates or for children with impaired renal function, because serum concentrations are not increased significantly in these patients. Because of concentration-dependent killing, if renal toxicity occurs, it is recommended to maintain the dose but switch to alternate-day dosing...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_021
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... likely to be recovered from subsequent relapses. Direct detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is available at some commercial and reference laboratories. Spirochetes can be cultured in specialized media from blood obtained before treatment. Serum antibodies to Borrelia species can...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S1_005_004
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... events compared with IGIV. The peak serum IgG concentration achieved following IGHY administration occurs several days following infusion and is far lower than that of IGIV. Unlike the consistent steady-state serum concentration achieved following IGSC, trough concentrations associated with IGHY...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_020
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... diagnostic assays for HBoV are available. HBoV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (respiratory and serum specimens), detection of HBoV mRNA in the respiratory tract, and detection of HBoV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibody also are used by research laboratories to detect the presence...