This updated statement reviews the scientific justification for the recommendations of dietary changes in all healthy children (a population approach) and a strategy to identify and treat children who are at highest risk for the development of accelerated atherosclerosis in early adult life (an individualized approach). Although the precise fraction of risk for future coronary heart disease conveyed by elevated cholesterol levels in childhood is unknown, clear epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that the risk is significant. Diet changes that lower fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intake in children and adolescents can be applied safely and acceptably, resulting in improved plasma lipid profiles that, if carried into adult life, have the potential to reduce atherosclerotic vascular disease.

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