Objective. To assess whether the recommendations that infants sleep supine could have adverse consequences on their motor and mental development.
Design. A prospective study of infants, delivered before, during, and after the Back to Sleep Campaign in the United Kingdom, followed to 18 months of age.
Subjects. The children were participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood born to mothers resident in the three former Bristol-based health districts of Avon, with expected date of delivery from April 1, 1991 to December 31, 1992. Questionnaires were completed on sleeping position at 4 to 6 weeks of age and sets of standardized questions on development at 6 and 18 months.
Main Outcome Measures. Social, communication, fine and gross motor, and total developmental scales based on the Denver Developmental Screening Test at 6 and 18 months.
Results. After adjustment for 27 factors using multiple regression, 3 of the 10 scales and subscales significantly distinguished between front and back sleeping position. At 6 months of age, infants put to sleep on their front had a mean score 0.38 SD (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28, 0.49) higher on the gross motor scale, 0.11 SD (95% CI: 0.00, 0.23) higher in the social skills scale, and a total development score 0.20 SD (95% CI: 0.10, 0.30) higher than those on their backs. These differences were no longer apparent at 18 months.
Conclusions. There is some evidence that putting infants to sleep in the supine position results in a reduced developmental score at 6 months of age, but this disadvantage appears to be transient. Weighing this against the adverse health effects demonstrated with the prone sleeping position, these results should not change the message of the Back to Sleep Campaign.