We describe the complex presentation of a patient with renal medullary carcinoma, a newly described entity primarily affecting young patients with sickle cell trait. Renal medullary carcinoma is an aggressive, rapidly destructive tumor associated with a delayed diagnosis and a poor outcome. The most common presenting signs and symptoms include hematuria, abdominal or flank pain, and weight loss. Sickle cell trait as the sole cause of hematuria in young black patients is a diagnosis of exclusion. Hemoglobin electrophoresis, intravenous pyelography, and computed tomography scans should be the minimal studies performed in young black patients with hematuria.

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